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Risk Factors

The following description is a summary of certain risk factors related to investment in the securities described on this website. The risks involved in an investment in the securities are not limited to the factors identified below.
  • The securities described herein generally have a limited term and may expire worthless. Due to the nature of such securities, their value may fluctuate considerably, and they may even lose their value in its entirety. Investors should be prepared to sustain a loss equivalent to the original purchase price and the transaction costs, and actively monitor the value and the term to maturity of the securities they have invested in.
  • The securities described herein are predominantly high risk investments subject to general market risks, such as interest rate risk, foreign exchange risk, political risk, corporate risk and time value.
  • Fluctuations in the price of the relevant underlying assets will affect the value of the securities.
  • Fluctuations in exchange rates of any relevant currencies will affect the value of the securities.
  • Prices of the securities are volatile. If the underlying moves in the opposite direction to that anticipated, losses incurred by the security may be greater in equivalent terms than losses incurred by the underlying asset.
Trading and hedging
  • The market for the securities described herein may be limited due to a lack of liquidity or low trading volume. This means that there may be difficulty in selling them at a reasonable price and, in some circumstances, it may be difficult to sell them at any price. Investors should not rely on being able to sell the securities described herein at a particular time or for a particular amount.
  • Investors may not be able to hedge the risks involved with these investments. Investors could make equal losses on any hedging transactions as well as losses on the securities.
  • Neither the issuer nor any of its affiliates provides any assurances or guarantee as to the performance of the securities described herein and is under no obligation to make a market in or to repurchase the securities.
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  • Securities described herein typically involve a high degree of risk and are not necessarily suitable for everyone. The information contained on this website is descriptive and general, and the securities may not be available to or suitable for you.
  • The securities on this website are only intended for sale to sophisticated investors who are capable of understanding and assuming the risks involved.
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  • Information given on this website on the past performance of the securities is no guide to or guarantee of future performance.
  • Opinions and valuations on this website are subject to change at any time without notice.
Borrowing to purchase securities

Prospective investors should be aware of the risks related to borrowing funds to purchase the securities described herein, particularly the potential losses they could sustain due to having to pay interest and capital. Investors should consider their financial circumstances as to whether they can afford to sustain losses on the securities purchased as well as repaying the finance obtained.

Material Interests/Disclosure of Interest

Citigroup and/or its affiliates may from time to time take proprietary positions and/or make a market in instruments identical or economically related to transactions entered into with investors, or may have an investment banking or other commercial relationship with and access to information from the issuer(s) of securities, financial instruments, or other interests identical or related to transactions entered into with investors. Citigroup may also undertake proprietary activities, including hedging transactions related to the initiation or termination of a transaction with investors, that may adversely affect the market price, rate, index or other market factors(s) underlying a transaction entered into with investors and consequently the value of the transaction.
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Bull & Bear -sertifikaatit

Bull & Bear-sertifikaatit ovat viputuotteita, joilla on päivittäinen kiinteä vipuvaikutus sekä rajoittamaton juoksuaika. Lisäksi ne eivät voi erääntyä ennenaikaisesti knock-outin seurauksena.

Päivittäin samana pysyvän vipuvaikutuksen vuoksi Bull & Bear -sertifikaatit sopivat erityisesti vahvoihin trendeihin.








Unlimited Turbot

Unlimited Turbot ovat viputuotteita, joissa on knock-out-ominaisuus sekä rajoittamaton  juoksuaika.

Tuote erääntyy arvottomana kohde-etuuden saavuttaessa tuotteeseen sisäänrakennetun knock-out-tason.


Minifutuurit kuuluvat Unlimited Turbojen tapaan knock-out-tuotteisiin. 

Minifutuurissa on sisäänrakennettu stop-loss-taso, jonka saavuttaminen johtaa tuotteen erääntymiseen. Toisin kuin Unlimited Turbossa, minifutuurista jää useimmiten jäännösarvo, joka palautetaan sijoittajalle.


Bonus & Capped Bonus -sertifikaatit

Bonus-sertifikaatit tarjoavat erääntymispäivänä ennaltamäärätyn bonusmaksun, jos kohde-etuuden hinta ei ole juoksuaikana sivunnut tai alittanut ennaltamääritettyä suojatasoa. Bonus-sertifikaatit hyötyvät kohde-etuuden hinnannoususta täysimääräisesti.

Capped Bonus-sertifikaateilla on tavallisen Bonus-sertifikaatin ominaisuuksien lisäksi ennaltamäärätty maksimitaso. Maksimitason vuoksi sijoittaja luopuu maksimitason ylittävän nousun tuotoista, mutta saa ehdollisen suojan kohde-etuuden laskua vastaan tavallista Bonus-sertifikaattia halvemmalla hinnalla.


Discount-sertifikaatit ovat sijoitustuotteita, jotka mahdollistavat sijoittamisen kohde-etuuteen suoraa sijoitusta edullisempaan hankintahintaan.

Positiivisen tuoton saavuttamiseksi riittää näin ollen jo paikallaan pysyvä tai jopa hieman laskeva kurssi. Vastapainoksi sertifikaatin arvo on rajattu niin sanotulla maksimitasolla, jonka myötä tuotteen tuottopotentiaali on rajallinen.


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